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Tuesday, November 29, 2022

2012 Free Agent Options: Starting Pitching

For Pittsburgh Pirates fans, the 2012 free agent market for starting pitchers will be simple: compare everyone to Paul Maholm.  The Pirates made it clear that they wouldn’t be bringing Maholm back in 2012, despite having a $9.75 M option for him to return.  With the starting rotation looking like it needs one spot, the Pirates will either need to re-sign Maholm on the open market, or add someone similar to Maholm in order for the move to make sense.

Looking at the available free agents, there are some alternatives to Maholm.  Some are clearly out of the price range for the Pirates.  Some are better than Maholm, but might come with injury risks that make Maholm the overall better value.  But there are some players who are better alternatives to Maholm, and a few that would come cheaper than $9.75 M a year.  Before we look at those players, we have to look at what Maholm brings to the table.

Analyzing Pitchers

When analyzing any player, I like to look at the previous three years of work.  I feel that gives a good sample size for what the player can do, and gives a good indication of where the player is currently at in their career.  I took this approach when analyzing Maholm and the rest of the options on the free agent market.

When it comes to statistical analysis, I don’t really believe in focusing on one individual stat to tell the story.  I look at a wide variety of stats, although to keep things consistent, I mostly focus on a few specific areas.  The first group I focus on is the strikeout, walk, and home run rates.  Those are the three areas that feature a battle between the pitcher and the hitter, and aren’t swayed by other players on the field.  They reflect the true skill level of the pitcher in question.  Generally, for a starter, I’m looking for a combination of a K/9 ratio of 6.0 or greater, a BB/9 ratio of 3.0 or below, and a HR/9 ratio of 1.0 or below.

I also factor in ground balls to the mix.  There’s two obvious reasons to this.  First, ground balls are typically easy outs.  Second, a pitcher, on average, tends to give up a home run in 10% of his fly balls.  The more ground balls you have, the fewer fly balls.  The fewer fly balls, the fewer home runs you have.  I also did a study in 2009 that focused on the impact of ground ball ratings.  Pitchers with a K/9 of 6.0 or better and a K/BB of 2.0 or better saw the following results:

The pitchers with a GB ratio of 43% or better had a 3.58 ERA and a 1.23 WHIP.

The pitchers with a GB ratio of less than 43% had a 3.85 ERA and a 1.23 WHIP.

The pitchers who didn’t have a K/9 of 6.0 or better and a K/BB of 2.0 or better had the following results:

The pitchers with a GB ratio of 43% or better had a 4.28 ERA and a 1.38 WHIP.

The pitchers with a GB ratio of less than 43% had a 4.52 ERA and a 1.39 WHIP.

In each case, the ground ball pitchers produced better numbers, almost 30 points better.

In addition to the desired metrics above, I also prefer a pitcher with a ground ball ratio above 42%, which is the league average.

I talk about luck a lot when discussing starting pitchers.  The three numbers I look at in this category are Batting Average Per Balls in Play (BABIP), Strand Rates, and home runs per fly balls.  Generally a starter will be around a .300 BABIP, a 70% strand rate, and a 10% HR/FB ratio.  There are some exceptions, although those are shown over time, and one year differences usually regress to the norm.  I focus on a pitcher’s xFIP to get an idea of their true skill level, as that focuses on things the pitcher can control (K, BB, HR), removes the lucky or unlucky BABIP and strand rates, and normalizes the HR/FB ratio.  xFIP is also considered the best indicator of future ERA performance.

Overall, I’m looking at the xFIP of each pitcher, along with the K/9, BB/9, HR/9, and ground ball rates.

Paul Maholm

The first thing that needs to be done is establishing what kind of pitcher Paul Maholm is.  In the last three years, Maholm has pitched 542.1 innings, with a 5.3 K/9, a 2.9 BB/9, and an 0.7 HR/9 ratio.  Two of those stat categories fit my requirements, although his strikeout numbers are low.  Maholm does have a ground ball rate of 52.3% in this time frame, which is one of the highest rates on the 2012 free agent market, and the highest of anyone with 400+ innings in the last three years.

His xFIP over the last three seasons is 4.29.  One thing to consider is that xFIP normalizes the HR/FB ratio to a 10.6% average.  Maholm has a 7.53% HR/FB ratio over the last three years.  I looked in to this earlier in the year, and believe this to be legit, due to PNC Park.  Maholm is an extreme ground ball pitcher in a park that favors left handers, due to a spacious left field.  That keeps his home run totals down, and PNC Park’s right field keeps a few balls in the park that would be gone in other stadiums.  This is a bigger benefit to Maholm than most other pitchers, because he has one of the best ground ball ratios, and he’s left handed, which means he’s not seeing as many fly balls in the first place.  The fly balls he does allow provide fewer opportunities to leave the spacious left field of PNC Park.

What this means is that Maholm’s xFIP might be a little high.  If we sub in his 7.53% HR/FB ratio for the 10.6% in the formula, he’s a 3.90 xFIP pitcher.  For now, we’ll leave him at a 4.29, but we’ll keep the HR/FB numbers in mind.

Alternatives to Maholm

Prior to running this site, I provided content to ESPN, Yahoo Sports, USA Today, and various other outlets, covering baseball, football, and hockey.  One of the things I wrote about was fantasy baseball.  Each year I had to come up with rankings for the upcoming season, followed by analysis throughout the year on who to add and who to drop.  I had the most success with pitchers, finding breakout aces like Adam Wainwright, Zack Greinke, and Matt Cain before they started posting ace-like numbers.  To do this, I took the same approach outlined above: focusing on the K/9, BB/9, and HR/9 ratios, and adding in the ground balls.

I’m telling you this to introduce you to my ranking system.  I had three groups of pitchers.  The names of the groups weren’t very scientific.  They were “Star”, “Good”, and “Risk”.  The pitchers in the “Star” category met all four requirements.  They had a K/9 of 6.0 or better, a BB/9 of 3.0 or lower, a HR/9 of 1.0 or lower, and a ground ball percentage greater than 42%.

The 2012 free agent class only has four pitchers with this “Star” rating, based on the last three seasons.  They are Adam Wainwright (option year), Hiroki Kuroda, Roy Oswalt (option year), and C.C. Sabathia (option year).  The Pirates have no shot at these guys, so we won’t spend any time on this category, other than pointing out the players in the group.

The next category featured the “Good” pitchers.  That removed the ground ball rates, and just focused on the strikeouts, walks, and home runs.  The 2012 free agent class doesn’t have any US players in the “Good” category from the past three years.  However, there are two international free agents who qualify, based on their numbers in the Japanese leagues.  They are Hisashi Iwakuma and Tsuyoshi Wada.  Both are 31 next year, and they might be the best options on the free agent market.  However, any team wanting to sign them has to pay a posting fee.  The fee is returned if the player doesn’t sign, but is lost if the team signs the player.  Last year the Oakland A’s paid over $19 M to negotiate with Iwakuma (they got it back when he didn’t sign).  Keeping that in mind, it would cost at least $20 M for these players, and that’s not even considering their salaries.  The posting fees essentially make these guys $10-15 M a year pitchers, without any Major League experience.  For that reason, I would be shocked if the Pirates were involved in the bidding for these guys.

The final group, the “Risk” group, looks at pitchers who are missing one of the four requirements.  Maybe they have a high walk rate.  Maybe they give up too many home runs.  Or maybe they’re like Maholm, with a good walk rate, a good home run rate, an above average ground ball rate, but not a lot of strikeouts.  There are eight pitchers on the 2012 free agent market who fit this description.  If the Pirates are going to find an upgrade over Maholm, it most likely has to come from this group.

Edwin Jackson is one of the best options on the free agent market, but the Pirates have no shot at such a pitcher.

The eight pitchers include the following players: C.J. Wilson, Joel Pineiro, Mark Buehrle, Dontrelle Willis, Jeff Francis, Erik Bedard, Edwin Jackson, and of course, Maholm.  Not all of these guys are good alternatives to Maholm, and some of them are guys I wouldn’t touch.  Take Willis, as an example.  He has an acceptable strikeout, home run, and ground ball rate.  However, he’s got a 6.2 BB/9 ratio in 175 innings over the last three seasons.  Even with the strikeouts, homers, and ground balls, I’m not going near that walk rate.

Wilson is the guy I like the best from this group, with his 3.6 BB/9 ratio holding him back from “Star” status.  He probably won’t be anywhere near the price range for the Pirates, as I wouldn’t be surprised if he got close to $100 M.  I’d be surprised if Mark Buehrle leaves Chicago, so it probably doesn’t make sense to talk about him either.

Edwin Jackson barely missed “Star” status, with a 3.03 BB/9 ratio (the cutoff is 3.0).  At 28 years old, he’s pretty much in line with Wilson as one of the top options on the market, and his age might make him a highly sought after guy.  Like Wilson, I don’t see the Pirates in on Jackson.

That leaves Joel Pineiro, Maholm, Jeff Francis, and Erik Bedard.  Pineiro is very similar to Maholm.  Both guys are on the “Risk” list because of low strikeout numbers.  However, each player has good walk, home run, and very good ground ball numbers.  Pineiro is coming off a two year, $16 M contract, which he got after a season with a 3.49 ERA.  Of the two, I prefer Maholm, due to his left handedness, and his younger age (Maholm will be 30 in 2012, Pineiro 33).  Pineiro’s contract could provide a guide for Maholm’s potential deal on the open market.  I don’t think that Maholm will receive $9.75 M per year, but I think $8 M a year is reasonable on a multi-year deal.

Jeff Francis and Erik Bedard are wild cards.  Bedard is an outstanding pitcher when healthy, which he showed in 2011 with a 3.62 ERA, and a 3.56 xFIP to back that up.  The problem is that he’s rarely healthy.  His 129.1 innings in 2011 was the most he’s pitched since throwing 182 innings in 2007.  He threw 81 innings in 2008, 83 in 2009, and missed the 2010 season.  He signed for $1 M, with $6.35 M in performance bonuses last year.  He probably will cost more than that after his 2011 season, although injury concerns should keep the price down to a reasonable level.  He’s a risk of a signing, but he’s better than Maholm when he’s healthy.  The only thing that kept him out of the “Star” category was a 3.5 BB/9 ratio over the last three years.

Francis is coming off of a year where he had a 4.82 ERA in 183 innings with the Royals.  The innings are good, as Francis came in to the year recovering from a shoulder injury in 2010.  The Pirates expressed an interest in Francis last off-season, but he ended up signing with Kansas City for $2 M, with up to $2 M in performance bonuses, most of which he earned.  Francis is a similar pitcher to Maholm.  He doesn’t strike out a lot of guys, but has a low walk rate, a good home run rate, and an above-average ground ball rate, especially in the last two seasons where he had a 47% ground ball rate.  He has a 4.23 xFIP over the last three years, which is lower than Maholm.  Despite his poor ERA, all signs point to him being a better pitcher than he’s shown, which could make him a value pick as an alternative if the Pirates can’t sign Maholm.

Switching gears a bit, and looking at xFIP over the last three seasons, there are 14 pitchers who were ahead of Maholm.  They included most of the above names (the only exceptions were Buehrle and Willis), and the following additions: Javier Vazquez, Chris Capuano, Ryan Dempster (option year), Aaron Harang (option year), Bartolo Colon.  Aaron Cook (option year), Rich Harden, Sergio Mitre, and Jason Marquis were also within ten points of Maholm, although they rated lower.

Vazquez and Dempster can be removed due to the price tag.  I also wouldn’t consider Colon due to his age of 39 next year.  That leaves Harang and Capuano.  The Padres will probably pick up Harang’s 2012 option of $5 M, especially after a year where he posted a 3.64 ERA in 170.2 innings.  That leaves Capuano, who will be 33 years old next year.  Capuano wouldn’t be a bad alternative to Maholm, and would probably be cheaper.  He’s kind of under-valued, but has always been a solid pitcher.  In 2011 he had a 4.55 ERA with the Mets, but had a 3.67 xFIP.  His xFIP over the last three years is 3.88, which is 41 points better than Maholm.

Capuano had a 7.9K/9, a 2.6 BB/9, and a 1.3 HR/9 ratio over the last few years.  He also has a ground ball rate that is right around average.  He’s borderline a “Risk” player, with the big drawback being his home run totals.  However, he fits PNC Park, as he’s left handed, which might help to drive down those numbers.  Capuano was coming off an injury last off-season, and signed for $1.5 M with the Mets, plus incentives based on starts and innings.  He made 31 starts and pitched 186 innings, so it’s likely that he reached almost all of those incentives.

Capuano would probably be cheaper than Maholm, and looks like a better version than Maholm.  As an alternative to picking up Maholm’s $9.75 M option, the Pirates could throw money at Capuano, possibly even signing him for Kevin Correia money.

The Best Free Agent Options

Overall, when considering the realistic options for the Pirates, my preference would be:

1. Chris Capuano – He’d be cheaper (allowing the Pirates to re-sign Derrek Lee and giving them space for other moves), and his xFIP indicates that he could be a better pitcher than Maholm going forward.

2. Paul Maholm – I’ve always liked Maholm, and feel his $9.75 M option would be fair value, although I think he could be had for cheaper on the open market.  He’s 30 years old next year, so a multi-year deal wouldn’t be a bad thing.

3. Erik Bedard – He’s a high risk guy, but also a high reward guy.  When healthy, he’s the number one or number two starter that the Pirates don’t have.  The problem is that he’s rarely healthy.  The risk is that the Pirates could end up paying for 15 starts, and it would probably take a multi-year deal to bring Bedard in.  That’s a lot of risk to take.

4. Jeff Francis – I see him as a last resort type player.  He’s a wild card, and I think he’s similar to Maholm, although I’d take Maholm if I had the choice.  I think he will improve on his 4.82 ERA from 2011, mostly based on his xFIP from the last few years.  His ground ball, walk, and home runs numbers are all good, and he would really benefit from pitching in PNC Park.  He’d also be much cheaper than Maholm.

The 2012 free agent market doesn’t provide a lot of opportunities to find a player that is similar to Maholm, especially when you consider that the Pirates don’t really have a chance for guys like C.J. Wilson or Edwin Jackson.  However, there are a few options, which shows that the Pirates don’t need to pick up the $9.75 M option to add Maholm’s production to the rotation.  The option guarantees that they get his production, but declining the option doesn’t prevent them from that same production.

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Tim started Pirates Prospects in 2009 from his home in Virginia, which was 40 minutes from where Pedro Alvarez made his pro debut in Lynchburg. That year, the Lynchburg Hillcats won the Carolina League championship, and Pirates Prospects was born from Tim's reporting along the way. The site has grown over the years to include many more writers, and Tim has gone on to become a credentialed MLB reporter, producing Pirates Prospects each year, and will publish his 11th Prospect Guide this offseason. He has also served as the Pittsburgh Pirates correspondent for Baseball America since 2019. Behind the scenes, Tim is an avid music lover, and most of the money he gets paid to run this site goes to vinyl records.


Pirates Prospects has been independently owned and operated since 2009, entirely due to the support of our readers. The site is now completely free, funded entirely by user support. By supporting the site, you are supporting independent writers, one of the best Pittsburgh Pirates communities online, and our mission for the most complete Pirates coverage available.

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excellent post.  i’d like to see one of maholm, capuano, francis, plus bedard on an extraordinarily creative incentive laden contract.  


I’d look within and the second option would be to trade within and get a young pitcher ready for the big show.  It won’t be for an Ace, but this pitching staff must remain patient as the future evolves.  We cannot blow another 10 million on one guy who chances are will fail.  I’d rather spend 10 mil over 10 different players.  To me that up’s the odds of success.

Jeremiah Ewing

Bedard & Capuano?With Morton out for awhile you’ll need a stop gap too… and could flip one at the deadline. 

Overall though, I believe they’ll bring in a very risky get for very low money as they’ve done this a couple times.  Your best guess on who that would be are:


IMO, most of these guys are similiar to Maholm in talent, I still like the idea of going the trade route, I just don’t know what they can get or would have to give up. If I had the choice of taking one of these guys or getting Maholm for 8mil, I would take Maholm.
You have to consider the Pirate defense if they do pay Maholm, they could go with a rookie at SS and that will lead to more errors in the infield, they could go with a rookie 1st basema,n that will lead to more errors, not really a good situation for a ground ball pitcher, not to mention a young catcher.

I liked Jackson until I saw what the Brewers did to him, the Cards and Cubs will be better next year and the Brewers will be very good with or without Fielder, the Pirates need to spend or trade for at least one top tier pitcher.

My option if I am the Pirates is to trade.


Again, rather than signing the next version of Correia look at organizations that may be backed up with pitchers or who are risky for some other reason.  It can’t be that much work, since its a given that there isn’t a lot of pitching out there.  There are some organizations that are deep with pitchers.

I would argue that the Pirates have had much more success pulling older minor leaguers, in organizations where they were blocked, than they have with signing 2d and 3d tier free agents.  Jeff Karstens, Charlie Morton, and James McDonald were all acquired for players we don’t or won’t miss.

The Pirates should do one of two things to replace Maholm and perhaps Corriea (last year’s free agent steal).  They should look at teams who have 24, 25, 26 or even 27 year old pitchers in their system, who are blocked or have some other non-arm related issue, and have achieved some level of success in the minors.  Or, they should stay in house and go with Lincoln and Locke.

This team never quite does it, play for the future that is.  They start to do it and then seem to bail out on the plan a little.  Forget free agent first baseman, or veterans to work with Alvarez.  Especially forget about free agent starting pitchers.  Their life span in Pittsburgh is a year or less anyway.  Find some young pitchers or players who will cost much less, like they did with Tabata, Karstens, Morton, McDonald, and even Hanrahan.  Build on success, not failure.


Great post I for one am willing to take the risk on higher upside guys. Rather than stick with Maholm. If they could get Bedard on a 2-3 yr deal with heavy incentives that would be great. I like Capuano too though. Maybe if they really like those Japanese guys they go overboard and make a move. Would love to see 2 of Bedard,Capuano,Iwakuma or a big trade for SP with 1 of them. Correia def to the pen or moved to a desperate team 


Very good post. My favorite would be Bedard but I agree he is a huge risk. I also like Feddy Garcia and Bruce Chen, two pitchers missing from your post so I guess they must fall below the standard in at least two categories.


Great post!

Jimmy Coverdale

Hisashi Iwakuma and Tsuyoshi Wada free agents – Iwakuma didn’t sign with the A’s last year as he knew he’d make a lot more as a free agent. He’ll be looking for something similar to what Kuroda got when he joined the Dodgers (3 year, $35m). Wada’s seen as a Dallas Braden type and wouldn’t be expensive (http://www.mlbtraderumors.com/2011/09/tsuyoshi-wada-eyeing-mlb.html). Still, Huntington probably won’t go for either

Ron Leighton

still question about signing Francis, if he is a bargain the Bucs aren’t going to get him as there are many teams that need pitching and all can make the same analysis that Tim does above.

If the Bucs get Francis, they will need to overpay (how many other teams offered Correia two years last year?)

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